1. Complex noun phrases
e.g. … a task-driven approach to software design …
2. Hedging devices
e.g. Internet Protocol Television is arguably the most interesting new media development.
3. Depersonalizing structures
e.g. There needs to be a proper exploration of the causes of the riots.
e.g. Twelve new species of Peruvian insect were identified by Swiss naturalists in 2011.
5. Particular types of linking language
e.g. Swans, in contrast, appear to mate for life.
6. The frequency of signalling language
e.g. Anders and Silver do not share the same views on the technical aspects of stem cell research. Armstrong (2012) explains why this disagreement matters …
7. Particular uses of verb tenses/aspects
e.g. Both studies conclude that a sudden drop in temperature delays the bonding process.